Ontological Determination of the Environment Concept Based on Heidegger’s Philosophy

Determination of the Environment Concept Based on Heidegger’s Philosophy

Roberto S. Kahlmeyer-Mertens[1]


The essay aims to objectively address the
environment concept within current’s environmental conservation discourse. The
author defines
the ontological concept of environmentbased on the phenomenological evidence provided by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger. The author intends to indicate that
usual understanding of the environment
is derived from a more radical experience,
which points to the
this surrounding world and human existence.
intends to clarify this concept, freeing it from its ambiguous use, and also to offer notesso that his issue can
revisited with
benefits to theenvironment
epistemology issues.
text will also outline the discussion about an ethic and conservative posture
concerning the environment and its bonds with the dwell, inhabit and
responsibility notions.

Heidegger, environment, nature, environmental conservation, environmental


The issue of our work depends on an introduction of
the terms
of the so-called environmental
issue. This
essential theme covers the agenda of scientists, thinkers, activists, environmentalists
politicians of all nations.
This is due to observation of the degradation of the environment we live in, a problem brought about by civilization
that relies on consumer relations in the kernel of an economic system governed by capital.
This degradation is exacerbated by the
action of the technology
which, as an
apparatus available to the
aaforementioned socio-economic model, is able to optimize the methods of
exploration, production and consumption,
besides promoting the satisfaction of the
growing needs engendered within this model,
also responding for the its maintenance. In this manner, empowered by an increased the technical capacity to
intervene in the environment, extracting its resources, man does more than use
them for its livelihood. Man appropriates them, accumulating them in a reserve
fund that can be
manipulated in accordance to the interest in exploring and storing energy resources, obtain profit, acquire power, or even in the production of the superfluous.

The intensive exploitation of environmental
resources soon reveals irreparable harm
in the medium run
could jeopardize the survival of man. Even
tough examples of these data are widely shown off on the media,
it would not be much to remember some here too: the progressive exhaustion of nonrenewable
such as oil, and
deforestation, with the consequent
creation of
desert spaces, climate and habitat
modification and depletion of water resources. This concentration of resources generates disorders not
only in terms of “nature”.

and conflicts eventually establish themselves in social relations.
demographic and urban growth
, excessive waste production, unemployment,
poverty, famine and urban violence are just some of the possible
. (Castro, 2001)

Under the impact of the Second World War, it has been observed, mainly during the
1960s, greater attention paid to these problems, thus
appearing various
proposals and initiatives in an attempt to reverse this situation. In many of these, there
was no longer
the weakness characteristic of earlier approaches to understand the environment and nature in their bucolic sense but the proposal for a "rational
exploitation". This would be aimed
effective actions to reduce the accelerated rate
destruction of s
preserved natural resources
and to find ways to reconcile environmental conservation with human needs, including the quality of life. Thus, one could minimize the depletion of resources,
using them sparingly, reducing the pace of environmental damage, in order to allow time for nature to act recovering
from the
damage suffered (Assis,
This way, man’s survival on Earth would be
assured. These
assumptions about eco-efficiency underpin some of the key proposals of sustainable development into

It is not necessary to proceed much further
into this introduction to notice the inconsistencies of these ideas concerning
the environment, as, already in the declaration of their intentions, the
preservation discourse
(which became the flag to various environmental movements) ends up reproducing the logic of consumption when one prescribes: a) moderate use of environmental
, so we can consume longer; b) systematic use of
resources so that everyone can continue to produce and consume in a
greater or smaller
degree; c) limiting the exploitation of the
in order to aggress less and less often,
so that it has time to recover before
re-explored; finally, d) a new mode of consumption to ensure, through the preservation of the intake, the continued consumption. (Assis, 2001) This is
to characterize the speech of conservation as something that is much closer to a control of administrative resources and, therefore, an
economy approach, than an ethical stance towards the environment and
development that we achieve from it. This structure that dictates rational exploitation, given the notion of conservation, could be compared to the appeasement policy of the English Chancellor Arthur N. Chamberlain, in the circumstances of the invasion of
by Hitler, portrayed in a
n old cartoon. In the cartoon, the Nazi dictator tries to break the
door that separates him from his goal,
while Chamberlain Just
cordially asks
" – Mr. could you not
find a workaround to break the door without breaking the lock?"
(Belmonte cited in Aquino, 1996, p. 68). Similarly, conservation, in the foregoing
, would notBe
just a sustainable degradation
, or parodying the aforementioned charge, something close to a “Could you rape the environment nicely?"

Convinced that this way of behaving towards the problem is due to a misunderstanding of the phenomenon that the environment is, let us begin toenvironmental issues
ambiguous points.

1 The question of the Environment and their ambiguous
philosophical assumptions

The problems of environmental degradation and the crisis thatthey
can be approached from different directions. For this, we see public policy thinking new strategies to
meet the challenges of this framework, science (the same one that develops ways
to exploit) mobilized in some of its different sectors to develop new tools
through technology, in order to increase the human capacity to solve immediate
problems and others on the medium and long terms
while efforts add together in favor of this combination, they stillseem, for the most part, unclear about their real goals and strategies (Brennan, 2001). An overview of the extensive literature on the subject, indicates that by
getting rid
many repetitions and mannerisms,one
faces a much reduced theoretical field
phenomenon perhaps explained by the relative novelty of the problem), having still some misconceptions and ambiguities. The author call ambiguity the situation in which everything seems to have been understood, authentically captured and discussed,
when in fact it was
, or the situation which doesn’t
seem to have been understood,
fact it was
. (Heidegger,
1996) Thus, the redundant
"environment" is a good point to think one of the main ambiguities concerning the task of environmental conservation, not only because,
there is much talk about it but little to say, taking it to be obvious, when in fact
is not, but
because it refers to fundamental structures involved in environmental issues. Thus,
we might ask: what is environment? or, what we mean when we say an

We said above that the term environment[2] is redundant, because in
Constitution (as originally coined by the French biologist Geoffroy St.Hilaire in their Progressive Studies
of a naturalist
, 1835), the word itself brings together two terms that could be taken by synonyms,
mean and ambience.
Some explanations arise for this redundancy: It is commonly attributed to the term mean, a complex relationship between the natural world and living being, influencing
its life and behavior.
With the same
meaning, the environmentemphasizes the physical and biological conditions of the natural world and living beings and, in particular in its
to man. (Birnbacher, 1997) Under both definitions, a key assumption is expressed, the separation between a presumed natural
and man. Thus, we have an entity called nature on
one side
(composed of the
ordered sum of all other natural
) and the man on the
other side
, as
distinct things.
When pointed out that separation, we aim the perspective in which man understands and relates with the environment.
perspective is the subject-object duality, as found in Cartesian philosophy and science.

To the
French philosopher
Rene Descartes (2003),
man is a thinking thing (res cogitans) different from other things only extensive (res extension), physical. By thinking, man would rule over natural things and make practical use of
in favor of life. However, this use
is based on a reification of the natural world, consisting of utilitarian deals, which disregard any common thread of this subject with all other entities that are now the objects
their occupation. This dichotomy would
support the
appropriation of nature
a set of objects available as means to ends.


earth now revels itself as a coal mining district, the soil as a mineral
deposit. The field that the peasant formerly cultivated and set in order
appears differently than it did when to set in order still meant to take care
of and to maintain. The work of the peasant does not challenge the soil of the
field. In the sowing of the grain it places the seed in the keeping of the
forces of growth and watches over its increase. But meanwhile even the
cultivation of the fields has come under the grip of another kind of
settings-in-order, which sets upon nature”. (
Heidegger, 1977, pp.

That way, trees are used as raw material or
fuel, the wind as energy to move mill, the river streams used as the
hydroelectric turbines driving force, sunlight turned into electricity by solar
cells, etc. Uses
, which would be characterized by the Descartes’ philosophy
, as ways of elevating the status of the subjects to masters
possessors of nature (Descartes, 2003). This project, that was in his view radicalized by the historical influence of two industrial revolutions,
inserts us into the previously
of consumerism realm, further
hindering any
evidence ofa community between man and its environment. So, considering the total dissociation between man and environment (i.e., between subject and its object) it would be possible to spoil it without any drama.

2 The  environment and its
ontological determination

It is possible to enunciate now, based on the foregoing statements, that a particular way of understanding the environment would be responsible for its degrading action. We observed that a disregard of the environment as a game
creates the man’s ignorance that it is constitutive of its existence. It is evident the urgency for a clarification of the concept of environment due to an anthropocentric manner with which the environmental issues are addressed, outlining which ‘placeman would occupy in this universe. These requirements are
formally proposed in Being and Time in which the German philosopher Martin Heidegger from the analysis of man‘s existential condition of being-in-theworld says:

“The saying used
so often today “Human being have their environment” does not say anything
ontologically as long as this “having” is undetermined. In its very possibility
this “having” has its foundations in the essential constitution of being-in. As
a being essentially existing in this way, being-there can explicitly discover
beings which it encounters in the environment, can know about them, can avail
itself of them, can have “world”. The ontically trivial talk about
“having an environment” is ontologically a problem. To solve it requires
nothing less than defining the being of being-there beforehand in an ontologically
adequate way. If in biology use has been made of this constitution of
being-especially since K.E. von Baer – one must not conclude that its
philosophical use implies “biologism.” For as a positive science, biology, too,
can never find and determine this structure, it must presuppose it and
continually make use of it. This structure, itself, however, can be explicated
philosophically as the a priori condition for the thematic objects of biology
only if it is understood beforehand as a structure of being-there. Only in
terms of an orientation towards the ontological structure thus understood, can
“life” as a constitution of being be defined a priori in a privative way”. (
Heidegger, 1996, p. 54)

With this passage the author
to accentuate the need for a definition of the way in which man is in his environment, since this man on his way of being "has" an environment and, finally, what kind of relationship is at stake
in this ‘have‘. (Foltz, 1995) To Heidegger man is more than the
of a subject substantially established in a dichotomy and antagonism
the natural world. In his
, a man would always-be-there, open to the possibilities of a space of relations and of being released in being-busy ways that would
provide him
conditions for its
realization. Thus
, man would not
to only then get
with other entities, but rather, he would be a being who, in his
takes place there.
By reason of terminological affinity with the commented author, we will adopt a term that we intend to think in an analogous manner to the concept environment (Umwelt), namely: the world (Welt).

we have a world, for the being-in-the-world, there isn’t a relationship of
ownership or any accessory condition, but an essential characteristic and,
therefore, indispensable. So, according to Heidegger (1975), only as being-in-theworld is human experience possible. For only to exist in a world, this can be.
Man, while one
has possibilities,
existentially reveals
itself as an “open”
, i.e. as one that becomes since its opening (Entschlossenheit) in the world. This opening is not external to the being-there, either superimposed on it,
it reveals the possibilities of its being. Possibility in which the being-there is founded (Heidegger,

As stated in the
, the being-in-theworld is beingin. However, this "in" should not be understood
the physical notion of "inside…". For this type of
at best, characterizes the "relationship" found between two or more extensive bodies. Relationship that could be exemplified by the proposition "the water is inside the glass" or "the books are in the drawer." This relationship can be extended to its imaginable limits, but phenomenologically
would not present us
more than a relationship of container and
. Hence, instead of referring to the bodies in that spatiallocative relationship, the "in" of being-in-theworld is
concerned with
a form in which it
always and
already is, or, to speak with Heidegger (1996, p. 51): “(…) the “in” primordially
means a spatial relation of this kind. “In” is derived from innan-, to
live, habitare, to dwell. “An” means I am used to familiar with,
I take care of something. It has the meaning of colo in the sense of habito and diligo.”

The semantic involvement demonstrated here presents us
the fundamental distinction
between the alleged relationship of the other things in the world
of man in his existential
. All these figures: live, dwell, grow, build, reproduce richer meaning than the mere inwardness. Pointing to be in the world, but not like the fact of simply being given the intra-physical, but in a building of residence relationships (Heidegger, 1978).

In a brief note, we point out that, because
of this
orientation, even worn down
words by
academic jargon and the public hype may appear under new direction. Thus, the term "ecology"
be understood as knowledge of the relations with which man lives in his world,
it (once the ‘echois derived
the Greek oikos’: indicates address); the same way: habitat’ or biosphere’ rather than the mere space occupied by a living organism, can be thought as An indication of a way of being-inworld or being-in-theenvironment.
(Malpas, 2006)

existing in the
of being-in-theworld, branches out in various modes of being-in. Thus, in the world, this man was always there with something that relates to the world and that happens in the world. The world is constitutive of man, giving, this
, the
of this entity. This brief characterization allows us to say that the world is not an objective
and not a summation of other targeted things. It would also inappropriate
make use of the restricted, but
very common,
idea that world would be a whole field,
only a limited physical space, within which man and its most diverse
manifestations would fit
. Heidegger assures us that the world is neither an "ontic portrait" of being innerworldly, nor a mere
of the phenomenon of those entities. To Heidegger (1996), the world is the character of the man
, covering an entire cyclical significance and
from which it takes its origin, fate and

With this argument, we find the heideggerian interpretation for the sufficient
of the way of being of the world (environment) in the face of the existential constitution of man. Clearly man as being-in-theworld, is a complex of relations and not something
different from his
world. Thus, being-in-theworld is his circumstance and
relationships that
he engenders in the world. Conceiving this way, it would overcome the understanding of the
Cartesian subject
as one other than the world and perhaps usher in a different way of acting in the environment.

Still in
opening quotation, we witness Heidegger’s comment, according
which biology, as a positive science,
could not
find and determine this ontological structure of the being there’s world, but only presuppose it, using it. This statement applies
not only
to biology but also for all the positive sciences, because these, do
propose, in their projects,
to know
the inner
of phenomena,
on the contrary, are
concerned with discovering
, thanks to the use and combination of
and observation, the effective laws of The
, their invariable relations of success and similarity. (Kahlmeyer-Mertens, 2007) Thus, these modes would be inappropriate to refer to the ontological
of the concept of world as the environment and the ontological
of "life
To Heidegger, the
positive sciences
even the
traditional philosophy
(with the residual influence of
Cartesian orientation), on his way to investigate the world, objectifies
in order to understand it as the set of objects or "natural-things" or nature as possessing physical properties subject to verification.
author identifies in this stance a concern with the determination of the essential
of the environment, however:

“(…) even if he could explain the pure nature of being,
through the fundamental affirmations of mathematical physics, this phenomenon ontology would
never reach the
In itself, nature is a being who comes to meet in the world and that can be discovered, followed by different ways and degrees.”(Heidegger, 1993, p.95)

Heidegger, these attitudes toward research approach rather than the primary
phenomenon in the world, a derivative representation of it, or
approaches a being found
in the world,
According to
the German thinker, the environment, while world, differs in an
essential way
from what is interpreted as nature, so this is just one entity among many others, subject to an appropriation by an objective person that, with this, has a dichotomous relationship. Nature as an

“Ontologically and categorically
understood, nature is a boundary case of the being of possible innerwordly
beings. Being-there can discover beings as nature only in a definite mode of
its being-in-the-word. This kind of knowledge has the character of a certain
“de-worlding” of the word. (…) But even the phenomenon “nature”, for instance
in the sense of the Romantic concept of nature, is ontologically comprehensible
only in terms of the concept of the world; that is, in terms of an analytic of
being-there”. (
Heidegger, 1996, p. 61)

Accordingly, confusing world with nature (environment) is
ignore the distinction that further
this concept. Comprehension that would
disregard the
world as the constitutive entanglement of man (in his ways, moods, intentions, motivations, goals, occupations, measures to be considered binding relations, referrals, meanings and visions of community
with other
beingsinworld) to its "de-worlding," conceiving it as another ‘thingcapable
being objectively handled, used, consumed, exploited and degraded by someone
understands himself apart and therefore not engaged
this environment. Thus,
to assert
that the nature can
be grasped ontologically from the concept of the
as seen from the existential analysis of man is
the same as to underscore
it as a derivative mode of apprehending the
. Derived mode accessible through
different ways.

3 Environment
and Its naive understanding (nature)

Among these ways, the concept of
finds at the core of modern thought, marked by
dominant idea of the philosophy of
, another voice that would emphatically mark nature’s
with man (unlike the way
Heidegger would see
the problem), surpassing the subject-object dichotomy. This
is what we
saw with the writings of the Philosophy of nature F.W.
Schelling (ideas that we
will deal
with a synthetic overview, without strict pretensions; pointing to an appropriate unfolding on another occasion).

Schelling (1907) establishes a "commonunity" of man with
, in that it recognizes this as unconscious subjectivity in
development. In this
the progressive
of determinations, the living nature would present
at various stages, and whose ultimate
would be the highestconscious subjectivity, i.e. a
free nature
, self-determined,
to "see itself" as
a man
. In this development,
by a productive
, the man-nature takes the position Of a prevailing ordering principle of nature, capable of seeing the world on the
of nature itself, keeping the accidental distinction,
to which
nature is unconscious, while he, man is
very nature conscious of itself. These ideas, with emphasis
the experience of community between man and nature are illustrated by the following

“Like all things and elements of nature, while mere abstractions of the whole, dissolve in the total life (Allleben) so the nature – whose image is the Earth and stars, each of which carries in itself divinely all forms and kinds of being and creations
of the subject must become an ordinary life, higher than the life of each of them in particular.” (Schelling, 1907, s/p.)

These ideas of Schelling, according to Hartmann (1993), already in his time were regarded
intemperate in his intuition, being nearer to thoughts of a speculative
than a scientific investigator. The
adoption of such perspective,
the specialist,
would only be exceeded by
the romantics
, responsible for the rescue of
the concept
of a deity and Nature’s own intangibility. After the presentations that
, which intended to accomplish the task of an ontological definition of
the concept
of environment,
their understanding of nature and unraveling their ambiguities, using the ideas of authors in philosophy, some questions may arise from
clash with the environmental problem: wouldn’t these ideas
theoretical reflections about a real
problem which is
essentially practical, depending more on effective actions than
one “metaphysical” speech? Would
all these ideas be integral parts of a doctrine much
to poetry and, therefore, unrelated
to any
commitment to the environment? Would
have this speech
forgotten man’s need to
make use
of environmental resources, essential to its
? And
, to what extent the philosophical approach would
most suitable to contribute to the
of environment and its preservation?

There is no way of denying man’s
to make use of environmental resources. Just as there
is an undeniable
urgency to develop a model of consumer society that
seeks to
make good use of these resources, preserving the environment, respecting its biodiversity, while simultaneously defending its economic growth. (Leff, 2006) To
new bases and programs for sustainable development, aiming
their regional suitability, sustainability of
products and emphasizing participatory and citizenship like ways to manage, are apparently more
urgent tasks
to deal with than the ones presented in this article. For environmentalists’, its investing in these procedures, which is
believed to
protect the harmony of man in the environment, providing him
social inclusion as it becomes able to consume to ensure his survival and dignity. Finally,
one might
think that from these practices
we would have one
mode of operation that would respect the “ethical” boundaries with the environment, without incurring into
predatory posture.

However, all these practices, products, calculations and plans for
ensuring a
good acting, would be surface phenomena without
that man is his environment. Well, just so we
that a relationship degrading the
is degrading himself and all
the others that
coinhabit. In
coinhabit resides
fundamental principle of ethics, not one
oscillates between the humanist discourse, speaking of equality and solidarity and mystical theology, referring to this one primitive sacredness or prescribing him mercy. The ethics involved
, has in the Greek notion of ethos, a live in a to be
familiar with
… a stay in so the first step towards an ethical act, in
case is the clarification of the place that man has
a house
, a reminder of the kind of relations that we used to have in this environment, the recognition that we become familiar with
it and
, finally, be careful not to lose sight of this community when
in this space of achievement. These contributions would
proposed by a philosophical approach, if
we understand
as Novalis does:The philosophy itself as a longing for
the homeland-earth, an impulse to be everywhere at home" (
Novalis cited in Heidegger, 1995, p. 7).


found that
, usually, the environmental
refers to the environment and its preservation in an anthropocentric way. This means that it often
emphasis to the human dimension at the
of the environment (only possible by ignoring the bond that ties together the existential being-there to the world). The environmental issue is not resolved by a reversal of the premise (i.e., to make a pendulum that would
the emphasis to the detriment of the human environment). It is necessary to consider the concept of environment in its mode of being. Heidegger‘s phenomenology allows us to do this, it enables
us to
treat the environment not just as nature (in a materialist or idealist sense), for the philosopher, the environment is a surrounding world which determines or at least conditions the human existence. To restore such a tie is the first step for us to address issues of environmental
preservation and conservation
in a
ethical way. This means
only understanding ourselves as beingsin-the-world with other
inthe-world is an environmental
that can legitimately be established. These indications are, however, only notes, or even starting
for further reflection.



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